2016年10月2日 星期日

種植海拔如何影響咖啡及其風味?

Have you ever asked your barista about the coffee they served you? If you have, they probably responded with a complicated answer including a side note about the elevation at which the coffee was grown. That raises the question, what does elevation have to do with the coffee you are about to drink? And why does it even matter?
你曾問過咖啡師你喝的咖啡的資訊嗎?咖啡師可能會用難以理解的方式回答你,諸如咖啡種在什麼樣的海拔。這不禁讓人想問,我們喝的咖啡跟種植高度有關係嗎?為什麼這會重要?

海拔為什麼很重要?
Elevation has a direct impact on the size, shape and taste of the coffee you are about to consume. Now, you don’t need to demand a coffee from a certain elevation the next time you walk into a coffee shop, but understanding a little about it can help you find a coffee that you love.
海拔會直接影響咖啡豆的大小、形狀以及咖啡的風味。我們不需要要求咖啡店沖煮特定海拔的咖啡,但了解海拔對咖啡的重要性能幫你找到你所愛的咖啡。


你的咖啡海拔多高?由stinemonsen提供

In my last article about how farmers choose their coffee plant variety, we talked about how the elevation and climate of the farm can impact what type of coffee a farmer may choose to plant. To quickly summarize, arabica generally likes higher altitudes of 1,800 to 6,300’ with cooler climates, while robusta varieties prefer a lower elevation of 600 to 2,400’ with warmer climates. Within those ranges, the elevation profoundly impacts the coffee.
在本文作者另一篇文章「三個因素影響咖啡農決定種植的咖啡品種」中,談到莊園的海拔及氣候,如何影響咖啡農選擇栽種的咖啡品種。簡單來說,阿拉比卡種通常較能適應較高海拔,如1800-6300英尺(550-1920公尺)的寒冷氣候;而羅布斯塔種則較能適應較低海拔,如600-2400英尺(180-730公尺)的溫暖氣候。在這範圍內的海拔深深影響咖啡品質。

你對海拔認知有多少?
Elevation impacts the physical aspect of the coffee bean. The next time you get your hands on a bag of green coffee (coffee that isn’t roasted), take a very close look at the beans. Are they small and densely formed? Is the fissure line closed, opened, straight or zig-zagged? What color are they—jade, light green or blue? All of these characteristics are affected by the elevation at which the coffee is grown.
海拔影響著咖啡豆物理層面,當你有機會接觸咖啡生豆(未烘焙)時仔細地看看,它們很小而且結構緊密嗎?中間的分線封閉、開放還是鋸齒狀?生豆是什麼顏色?翠綠色、淡綠色還是藍色?這些特徵都是咖啡種植海拔所影響的結果。

咖啡種植海拔直接影響咖啡豆的特性,由handpickers提供

The most sought after coffee beans are strictly hard beans (4,500’ elevation and up). These are very dense, caused partly by the slow growth that occurs in a high-altitude environment. They should have a closed fissure line that might be zig-zagged or slightly skewed. On the other hand, lower elevation coffee beans will generally be less dense, with a semi-open fissure. There will be some variation in color as the variety of coffee and beneficiary process used impacts the color. The same coffee from the same farm can have a different color in its green form if processed differently: a honey process versus a full wash. With that said, the bean density will probably be the best signal for determining the altitude of the coffee.
咖啡豆追求的最高品質稱為極硬豆SHB1370公尺以上),形成這些高密度結構的咖啡豆,歸因於高海拔環境種植使咖啡豆生長速度緩慢。咖啡豆中央線可能是封閉的、鋸齒狀或稍微歪斜的。另一方面,低海拔種植咖啡豆一般會較不緊實,擁有半開放的裂縫,咖啡顏色會因品種有些差異,而生豆處理程序也會影響顏色。來自相同莊園的相同咖啡豆因處理法的不同,而可能會有不同顏色,就像蜜處理和水洗對咖啡豆影響一樣。這麼說,咖啡豆的密度可能是咖啡種植海拔的最佳證明。

高海拔為何較好?
只要稍作練習,就可以透過海拔辨別咖啡豆的特色。由greenbeanroasters提供

The main reason that higher elevation coffee is more sought after is the taste. When well-cared for, high elevation coffee will produce the more acidic, aromatic and flavorful cup of coffee that we love, while lower elevation coffee tends to have a lower acidity with little character in the cup. This is the real reason why your barista is telling you about the elevation of the coffee you are about to drink. Generally, a higher elevation coffee will be a better tasting coffee and by saying that the coffee was grown at 5,200’, it means the coffee should have a good flavor.
追求高海拔咖啡的主因是因為它的風味,只要照料良好,高海拔的咖啡酸質會更高、香氣及風味更佳;而低海拔咖啡會偏向酸質低,且個性較不鮮明。這就是為什麼咖啡師會告訴你海拔高低會深深影響你喝的咖啡風味,一般來說高海拔代表咖啡更好喝,定義此類咖啡在1730公尺以上生長,也代表此類咖啡風味佳。
海拔直接影響著你杯中的咖啡風味,由DT Coffee Club提供

Elevation is just one of dozens of factors that affect the taste of the coffee you are about to drink, but it is one of the most important ones. Feel free to ask your barista for more information about the coffee you’re about to drink and experiment with coffees from different elevations and regions of the world!
海拔只是眾多影響咖啡風味的因素之一,但這是最重要的因素之一,向咖啡師打聽更多資訊,並嘗試不同海拔及地區的咖啡吧!

Original source:
http://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2015/06/how-does-elevation-affect-coffee-and-its-taste-in-the-cup/ 


Written by Z. Daggett and edited by T. Newton
A special thanks to Rodolfo Ruffatti who contributed valuable information for this article.

Perfect Daily Grind

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