2016年10月17日 星期一

如何將咖啡業界的浪費降至最低?

The wonderful thing about third wave coffee—aside from the amazing beverage itself—is how ethical it’s making the industry. With specialty coffee’s focus on origin, we know that we’re helping coffee-producing countries with every delicious cup we consume.
Except, it turns out that coffee production isn’t actually that green. In fact, it generates a significant amount of water pollution, damaging coffee-producing countries’ water sources and leading to a loss of profit for manufacturers.
第三波咖啡風潮,除了咖啡本身很棒之外,也是咖啡業界符合道德倫理,精品咖啡著重於追溯源頭,我們可以透過購買每杯美味的咖啡來幫助咖啡產國。
但事實證明咖啡種植的過程並非很環保。事實上,咖啡帶來大量水資源的汙染、破壞咖啡產國的水源,且造成生產者的利益損失。

According to the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA), waste water from the water milling processing of coffee has been found to contaminate up to 40 times more water than your average urban sewer wastage. This level of wastage has a huge impact.
Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be that way. More and more uses are being discovered for coffee byproducts, meaning not only can we protect the environment, but coffee can further provide opportunities for economic growth. What’s not to like?
根據美國精品咖啡協會(SCAA),咖啡在濕處理過程造成的廢水,比一般城市消耗的平均汙水量高出40倍,這麼大程度的浪費帶來巨大影響。
還好並不是只有這樣,越來越多再利用可應用在咖啡副產品上,這代表透過咖啡不只可以保護環境,咖啡也可以進一步帶來經濟成長,何樂而不為?


種植在哥倫比亞考卡省的咖啡果實,由Neil Palmer提供。


咖啡種植中所造成的浪費
So why is coffee production so bad for the environment?
Well, let’s consider all the parts of the coffee cherry. There’s the pulp, mucilage, parchment, silverskin and bean. Us coffee lovers are just interested in how we can extract that magic bean; the other four parts, more often than not, just get discarded. 
所以為什麼咖啡種植對環境不友善?
我們來想想咖啡果實的結構,果肉、果膠層、羊皮層、銀皮及咖啡豆,大家都為了得到最內層咖啡豆,通常是將外面四層物質捨棄,最好不要有它們。
In coffee producing countries, many of which are lower-income countries, this is a huge issue. Often their water wastage systems are unable to cope with the waste that’s being dumped into the water, resulting in water contamination.
許多咖啡產國都是低收入的國家,這是一個重大的議題,往往他們無法處理這些浪費掉的水而將廢水亂排,造成水汙染。
But wait, where did water come into this?
Well, this problem occurs when the coffee’s washed processed. The coffee cherry is removed by a wet mill and then soaked in water. During this time, the fruit mucilage is broken down and any remaining fruit comes away from the bean. This fruit remains in the water, leaking nutrients and causing something called eutrophication.
等等,什麼時候會用到水?
常常在水洗程序就會面臨這個問題,用水來處理咖啡果實且浸泡在水中,這一階段果膠層會脫離且將咖啡果實剩餘的物質脫離,這些物質會留在水中,水會保留果實的養分而使水優養化。

Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or any other body of water, which can happen in any area of agriculture. The danger of eutrophication is that it can unbalance the growth of organisms, such as algae, which can then cause a lack of oxygen in the water.
優養化是在湖泊或任何水中富含過多的營養成分,這往往發生在農耕區。而優養化的過程,會造成過多的有機物質,像是藻類,會導致水中缺乏氧氣。

A study undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency on the effects of eutrophication on the river water in Ethiopia found that water downstream from a coffee plant had significantly less oxygen and a rise in nitrogen levels—to the point that it could be deemed dangerous to humans.
環境保護機構研究衣索比亞河川優養化,發現在咖啡園旁的河流下游水中的含氧量明顯不足,而氮量卻節節高升,這會造成人類身體的危害。
咖啡果實用作施肥前的水洗,由Ludger001提供

咖啡農如何利用這些殘渣?
Yet those discarded parts of the coffee cherry are more useful than we realised. Researcher Habtamu Lemma Didanna from Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia discovered that the pulp is an extremely valuable resource—particularly for farmers. Didanna found that coffee pulp could replace up to 20% of the commercial concentrates used in cattle feed with no subsequent difference in weight gain or nutritional content. Doing this provided a 30% saving in costs of animal feed, meaning coffee pulp has serious potential to boost agricultural economy in coffee-growing countries.
然而這些被丟棄的果實殘渣比我們想得更有用,衣索比亞Wolaita Sodo大學的Habtamu Lemma Didanna研究發現,咖啡果肉特別對農民來說是極具利用價值的資源,Didanna發現咖啡果肉可取代餵養牛隻多達20%的商用飼料,並且其營養成分及增加牛隻體重的功效上與飼料並無差異。這些可以在動物飼料的成本上節省30%,代表咖啡果肉在咖啡種植國極具農業的經濟潛力。

And it’s not just cattle farmers that win from this situation; coffee pulp, once dried and partially fermented, is also a brilliant substrate for growing exotic mushrooms. Mushrooms such as shiitake normally take months to grow—but, with a little help from coffee byproducts, it can take just a few weeks. This makes them a great source of secondary income; according to the New Agriculturist, struggling coffee farmers in Tanzania have boosted their income by selling high-value oyster mushrooms. Due to the mushrooms’ quick coffee-aided growth, they can be grown and harvested all year round. The sale of them has helped fund school fees and the addition of livestock to farmers’ land. 
而咖啡果肉不只是使牧牛的農民受益,咖啡果肉經過乾燥及部分發酵後,會是蘑菇生長很好的肥料。像香菇常需要數月的生長時間,如果是透過咖啡副產品的幫助,只需要數周即可長成,這使農民有第二個良好的收入來源;根據New Agriculturist這個網站,坦尚尼亞的咖啡農在種植高經濟價值的蘑菇上提高收入,由於蘑菇在咖啡果肉輔助下成長快速,咖啡農整年都可種植並採收蘑菇。這些銷售所得已經幫助他們成立教育基金,並擴大畜牧農民的土地範圍。

在美國加州的一家公司,利用使用過的咖啡渣種蘑菇。由Ashstar01提供。

在家如何降低咖啡殘渣?
While coffee lovers in non-producing countries may struggle to get coffee byproducts straight from the farm, it doesn’t mean we’re off the hook. We too can utilise our green fingers and get growing some mushrooms. Yes, even us city-dwellers can do this—mushrooms are perfect for windowsill gardening. Many independent coffee shops have started giving away bags of their used coffee for this very purpose, as are specialty mushroom companies such as Woodfruit.
在非咖啡產國的咖啡愛好者可能無法從莊園拿到咖啡副產品,而這並不代表我們什麼都不能做,我們也可以自己種蘑菇。沒錯,住在都市的人也可以做到,蘑菇非常適合種在窗台園藝這樣的空間,許多獨立咖啡店開始專門在這上面使用咖啡渣,像是專門種蘑菇的公司WoodFruit

On a more industrial level, Bio-Bean in London has developed a technique to turn used coffee grounds into an advanced biofuel, as well as biomass pellets. They claim that biofuel is capable of powering vehicles, while the biomass pellets are able to heat homes and shops. In fact, they hope that one day their biomass pellets may even heat the very shops the waste coffee came from.
若使用在工業用途,倫敦的Bio-Bean發展了將咖啡渣變成先進生質燃料的技術,像是「生物質顆粒燃料」。他們宣稱生質燃料能成為驅動車輛的能源,而生物質顆粒燃料可以提高室內及店內的溫度。事實上,他們希望有一天他們的生物質顆粒燃料甚至利用咖啡渣來提高特定店家內的溫度。
Bio-Bean的咖啡顆粒燃料,由Bio-Bean提供。


The potential power of Bio-Bean is phenomenal. Not only is it providing eco-friendly heating options, but it also offers a way to significantly cut down London’s coffee waste. Projections show that Bio-Bean should be able to repurpose 30,000 tonnes of the city’s discarded coffee. To put that in perspective, it’s estimated that London wastes 200,000 tonnes of coffee. We’re talking about a 15% reduction in waste—just through the power of coffee.
Bio-Bean的潛在力量非常驚人,不僅是提供對環境友善的升溫方式,也能大幅降低倫敦的咖啡殘渣。推測Bio-Bean應該可以重新利用倫敦這個城市3萬噸的咖啡殘渣。從分析來看,預估倫敦20萬噸的咖啡殘渣,我們只談到降低15%的殘渣,而這只是來自於咖啡渣而已。

Bio-Bean收集哥斯大黎加的咖啡殘渣並重新利用。由Bio-Bean提供。



未來我們將如何處理咖啡殘渣?
For too long now, coffee-lovers have looked past the issues of coffee wastage—but it appears that change is on the horizon. With the rise of companies such as Bio-Bean, as well as more and more research being done into the applications of coffee byproducts, it does not seem completely unreasonable to suggest that in the not too distant future, we may even see coffee shops and farms running off their own wastage.
Inspiring? You bet! So now, fellow coffee lovers, let’s take up our grounds and get upcycling! 
從以前到現在,咖啡愛好者檢視浪費咖啡的議題,而改變即將發生。像Bio-Bean這類公司的崛起,以及越來越多針對咖啡副產品的研究,當中似乎沒有不合理的建議,且在不遠的將來,我們可能可以看到咖啡店及咖啡農將咖啡渣再物盡其用。
興奮嗎?所以咖啡愛好者們,現在拿起我們的咖啡渣好好再回收利用吧!


肯亞Mbini自助小組的婦人,由McKay Savage提供。

What do you think of coffee’s environmental impact? Would you take up exotic mushroom farming? And how do you reduce wastage? Let us know your stories in the comments, on facebook, or on instagram.
你怎麼看咖啡環境議題?你會開始種蘑菇嗎?你會如何減少浪費?可以到原網站的facebookinstagram跟大家分享!

Written by M. Fury and edited by T. Newton.
Feature Photo Credit: McKay Savage
Perfect Daily Grind.

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