2016年6月6日 星期一

精品豆與商業豆三大關鍵差異-From Seed to Cup


What is it that makes specialty coffee so special? We know it’s much better quality than commercial-grade beans, but why? Is it picked off the tree, already loaded with those unique and flavorful characteristics we love?  



是什麼造就精品咖啡這麼特別?我們知道精品咖啡的品質比商業豆好得多,但為什麼?難道是咖啡果實從樹上採摘時,就已經具有這些我們喜歡的風味及特點了嗎?



If only it were that easy!
There’s a significant amount of detailed work that goes into producing a high-quality micro-lot specialty coffee. Everything from fertilizers to the amount of shade, and from the altitude to the variety of crops that are planted within the micro-lots have an effect on the quality of the coffee.  But the effort doesn’t stop once you’ve decided what to plant where and with what. To produce a specialty bean, the attention to detail must continue throughout the entire process – and there are three quality control points that can really make a difference to the final cup.  

如果那麼簡單就好了!
跟這些高品質小批量精品咖啡的生產細節很有關係,從肥料、遮蔭的程度、海拔、到同一個小產區的種植的作物都會影響咖啡的品質。但是一旦你決定要種什麼還有種在哪裡時,你不會停下你的計劃。種植精品咖啡,必須注意整個流程的細節,而當中有三個關鍵會造成最後杯中的品質差異。



哥倫比亞Risaralda, Caldas種咖啡的小鎮





1. The Cherry Pickers: Go Reds!
1.咖啡採摘工:挑紅色的咖啡果實!


Think cherry picking is basic work? Think again. The first line of quality control begins in the fields with these hardworking people.
採摘咖啡是純勞力工作嗎?想一想,這些辛苦工作的人是品質控制的第一線人員。


Traditionally, coffee pickers were instructed to pick any and all cherries in sight – green, yellow, red, or even black. Yes, black. It was quantity over quality, since coffee has typically been sold as a basic commodity rather than a luxury product. With a business model like that, the more there is, the more money you get.

傳統的咖啡採摘工被教育在採摘時,摘下他們看到的所有果實,不論是綠、黃、紅甚至是黑色的果實。沒錯,就連發黑的果實都採,這種以量取勝而不重視品質的採收方式,把咖啡當成量產的商品而非精品,這種商業模式的確讓他們賺進更多的錢。




咖啡農Jorge拉下咖啡樹的枝條,來找尋生長在最頂端的紅色咖啡果實,而這並非是個簡單的動作。





Yet with third wave coffee, things are changing. Pickers on specialty coffee farms are taught to pick only the red, ripe cherries. This is extremely important, as an underdeveloped or overdeveloped cherry can give the final cup a sour or bitter taste. It’s a difficult transition for a farm to make, as pickers are typically paid by the weight of the cherries they’ve picked. On specialty coffee farms, pickers are still compensated based on weight but they are paid premiums to make up for the fact that the weight picked is less and the work is more tedious.

然而在第三波咖啡風潮時情況變了。精品咖啡莊園的採摘工被教育只能採摘紅色、成熟的咖啡果實,這非常的重要,因為未熟或過熟的果實會導致咖啡太酸或太苦。不過一般咖啡莊園的採摘工是以採摘到的果實重量來計算報酬,所以這樣的轉變對莊園會有實行上的困難。雖然精品咖啡莊園的採摘工一樣是以量計酬,但他們會因為採摘程序較繁瑣,採摘的果實較少,而為彌補他們的收入,莊園會給他們一些額外的獎金。


留下綠色未熟果,採摘紅色成熟咖啡果。


Nobody is perfect, though, and so occasionally over- or underdeveloped cherries do fall into the sacks.  So some farms take it a step further and do a hand-selection process of the red cherries that are picked throughout the day to weed out any of the stragglers that get through.  This ensures that only the best and ripest cherries make it through to the wet mill.

沒有人是完美的,偶爾還是會採摘到過熟或未熟的咖啡果實,所以一些莊園會再進行一次手挑的程序,篩除掉任何過熟或未熟的漏網之魚。這能確保只有品質最好、成熟的咖啡果實可以進入水洗處理場。



咖啡農Jorge向我們示範如何採摘咖啡果實。




2. Parchment Coffee: Hunt Out Those Defects!
2.咖啡乾燥處理:篩出所有瑕疵豆!

After the cherries have been run through the wet mill and dried to the optimal humidity level, it’s time for the next stage: the hulling. And this is where the second quality control check is.
當咖啡果實經水洗處理廠並乾燥至最佳濕度後,就要進行下一階段的脫殼,而這階段則是第二個品質控管點。


Why so many quality control checks? Well, even the ripest, reddest of cherries can hide defects. They may look great to the naked eye, there’s no telling what lies underneath that pulp…
為什麼有這麼多品質控管點?即使是成熟的紅色果實,也會有隱而未現的瑕疵,從外觀來看可能很好,但難以判斷包覆在果實內咖啡豆的好壞。




咖啡農Rosa在手挑帶殼咖啡豆



Parchment beans with visible defects are hand-selected and then tossed into a pile of pasilla. Pasilla is the defective beans which, unfortunately, will still be sold in the market.  It’s what you would typically find in commercial grade coffee and is what most Colombians drink on a daily basis.

挑出看到的瑕疵帶殼咖啡豆,並將這些瑕疵豆聚集。不幸的是這些咖啡豆仍會被銷往市場,通常這些豆子會混在商業豆等級的咖啡中,並會是許多哥倫比亞人每天喝的咖啡。



咖啡農Rosa在手挑帶殼咖啡豆。




3. Green Beans: The Final Stage
3.生豆: 最後階段


Once the beans have been hulled, they’re left in their final stage prior to roasting: green. And yet again, a quality control check is needed. The parchment, just like the pulp, can hide defects. And per the SCAA criteria, specialty coffee must have zero primary defects, so it’s crucial to get rid of any defective beans.  

當咖啡豆脫殼後,就是烘焙前最後一個狀態:生豆。這階段同樣也需要品質控管,果膠層就如咖啡果肉般可能會藏有瑕疵,而根據SCAA的標準,精品咖啡最主要就是零瑕疵豆,所以在篩選瑕疵豆上要非常嚴謹。


哥倫比亞咖啡聯合會的生豆瑕疵樣本。




This last quality control point has traditionally been done by hand, but there are now machines that can do the job. Hand-selecting is the ideal method because it provides employment to the local community.
最後一階段的品質控管點傳統是用手挑,但現在有機器可取代人力來運作。手挑是理想的方法,因為手挑可以提供當地人民工作機會。


哥倫比亞亞美尼亞的Azahar咖啡廠正在手挑咖啡生豆



However, it’s not always the most time-efficient – especially for large cooperatives handling a huge volume.  As a small exporter/importer handling small micro-lots, I focus on maintaining economic and social sustainability within the communities we work with and so prefer the traditional method of hand-sorting. Yet for others, a machine may be a more viable option.

然而這個階段多數時候並不省時,特別是合作社的交易量都很大,此文作者作為小型咖啡產區的進出口商,著重在維持產區居民的經濟及社會永續性,因此較偏好使用傳統手挑的方法。但對其他商人來說,用機器挑咖啡豆可能較具商業考量。

哥倫比亞的咖啡生豆挑豆機




Roast Ready – But the Quality Control Continues
準備來烘豆,但品質控管還要繼續


By now, the process at farm-level is complete and the beans are ready to be roasted, free of defects and full of flavor. But if you think the quality checks stop here, you’re mistaken! The quality control points continue on until the final cup is served and enjoyed.

生豆在莊園的處理階段已告一段落,這時準備烘焙的豆子是沒有瑕疵且有豐富風味的。但你如果認為品質控管已經結束,那你就錯了!品質控管必須持續到做成我們享用杯中的咖啡為止。



哥倫比亞咖啡聯合會在品質控管,為生豆進行杯測。




Of course, these three processing quality control checks that we’ve been talking about will ensure that the number of rejected beans is minimal.
當然,這三個過程中的品質控管點,就確保了將咖啡豆的瑕疵率最小化。


精品咖啡的品質控管很嚴謹。圖為哥倫比亞咖啡聯合會在進行杯測。




By enforcing these three quality control points consistently and effectively during the processing stage, the quality of the coffee beans will noticeably improve. So next time you sit down with a delicious cup of specialty coffee, know it’s not just the beans themselves that make the coffee taste so great – it’s also the meticulous processes and hard work of those quality control checkers at origin.

透過持續並有效地實行這三個品質控管,將會顯著提升咖啡豆的品質。所以當你喝著美味的精品咖啡時,記得並不只是咖啡豆本身美味,還涵蓋了一絲不苟的程序、勞力的付出、原產地的品質控管等。



消費者手中的高品質精品咖啡背後付出了許多努力。圖為哥倫比亞咖啡聯合會在進行杯測。



And thank God they do check!
還好他們真的有認真做好各樣檢查!


Written by D. Valesquez of Campesino Specialty Coffee and edited by T. Newton.
Perfect Daily Grind.
Original source:

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