2016年1月22日 星期五

2013-2015年最被討論的商用磨豆機EK43

Sometimes the future takes an unexpected turn, making forecasters look more than a little foolish. Just ask the former president of IBM, Thomas J Watson who in 1958 confidently stated: “There is a world market for about five computers”.
有時候未來會發生轉折都很難說,而讓預測或預報無用武之地,只要問問IBM以前的總裁湯瑪斯華特生就知道,他曾在1958年信心喊話說「全球市場的完善運作,只需要五台電腦就可以做到了」。


Yeah. How many computers are in your house?
你家裡有幾台電腦?
Then there’s the 19th century British MP who, based on the rate of population growth in London at the time, and the number of horses needed to support such growth, concluded that by the middle of the twentieth century the capital would be six feet deep in manure. (Aren’t you glad cars came along?)
19世紀英國的國會議員,根據當時倫敦的人口成長率以及對應人口成長率預估所需的馬匹數量,結論出在20世紀中葉時倫敦遍地將會有6尺深的馬糞。(幸好後來發明了汽車)
In a slightly less comical but similar vein, I don’t think there are many people in the specialty coffee industry who, five years ago, foresaw the current popularity amongst leading coffee shops of a 30-year-old design of grinder originally intended for spice grinding. That grinder is, of course, Mahlkonig’s EK43.
用一個不那麼滑稽也比較貼近我們生活的狀況比喻,我五年前不認為精品咖啡會蓬勃發展,當時預測在最流行的咖啡店出現的磨豆機,應該是30年復古風的設計(而起初是設計來磨香料的),這個磨豆機毫無疑問就是Mahlkonig出品的EK43

From Spices to Espresso
從香料到研磨咖啡
The EK originally found favour in the coffee world as a grinder for filter coffee, where its advantages (which I’ll discuss later) outweighed its inherent weakness: its lack of on-demand dosing. 
EK起初是設計作為手沖滴漏咖啡的研磨,而它的優點(稍後再討論)超過固有無法穩定供粉的缺點(咖啡苗解釋為如放20克的咖啡豆,誤差為1-1.5克粉)。

咖啡師Jacob Denaro放入事先秤好重量的咖啡豆,
這是在咖啡廳使用
EK時必須的前置標準作業。


However, this all changed after Matt Perger’s routine in the 2013 World Barista Championship, where the EK43 took centre stage for espressos. Although Perger isn’t credited with being the first to use the EK to grind for espresso, he was certainly the barista who did the most to popularise it.
然而這一切都在2013年世界咖啡師大賽冠軍Matt Perger手中改變,當時他在主舞台使用EK43預備咖啡,雖然Perger不是第一個使用EK研磨espresso而被褒揚的咖啡師,但他毫無疑問是普及EK的咖啡師。
So what’s so good about it? And if it is so good, then why isn’t everyone using it?
所以它到底哪裡好?並且如果它真的那麼好,為什麼沒有人人都用它?


Advantage 1: Evenness of Grind
優點1:研磨均勻度
The main advantage of the EK43 is its uniformity of grind. All espresso grinders produce a bimodal particle distribution, and the EK is no different in this respect. That is to say, a typical dose will be comprised of two main sizes of particles. There will be fines, which are typically below 100 microns, but in a larger proportion by percentage volume, there’ll also be particles in the 200-1000 micron range. Yet with the EK, the spread of particle sizes is significantly less than with other grinders.
EK43最主要的優點是研磨的均勻度一致,所有的磨豆機都是製造成雙峰分布的顆粒(麗靜分析兩極化),而EK在這方面則沒什麼不同。也就是說,一般研磨會因為顆粒大小的兩極化而妥協,雖然也有精細到低於100微米的誤差,但顆粒大小誤差通常會是在200-1000微米這個範圍。但使用EK的話,顆粒大小的誤差明顯小於其他磨豆機。


設定咖啡機的研磨刻度,EK成了到咖啡廳時要一窺他們怎麼使用它來沖煮單品研磨咖啡及滴漏式咖啡的器具。


Perger and others from the speciality coffee world have analysed the EK43’s particle size distribution and found that, contrary to initial assumptions, it doesn’t produce a more even grind because it generates less fines (in fact, it produces more fines than many other popular espresso grinders). Rather, for a grind setting resulting in a given extraction, it produces more evenly sized particles than other grinders. Essentially, its modal particle size is smaller and, therefore, closer to the size of the fines than its competitors’ modal particle size. It also produces fewer very large particles (also known as ‘boulders’).
Perger及其他精品咖啡界的人分析EK43顆粒大小的分布,發現它跟最初的假設相反,它並沒有產生更均勻研磨大小因為它產生的碎屑較稀少(事實上,它運轉產生的碎屑比其他許多知名磨豆機都來得多)。然而,在萃取時的研磨設定,它產出的顆粒大小比其他磨豆機更均勻。實際上,它的顆粒大小更小,因此它的研磨大小精細度比其他競爭者的磨豆機更高。它也會磨出較少的粉和很大的顆粒(結塊)。
So what does this mean for coffee? Quite a lot. The more even the grind, the more even the extraction will be.
那研磨均勻度對咖啡的意義是什麼?意義很深。研磨的大小越均勻,咖啡的萃取就會越均勻。

A More Even Extraction
優點2:更均勻的萃取
Curious as to why particle size affects extraction? Small particles have a large surface area and, therefore, extract relatively easily—while the opposite is true for large particles.
好奇為什麼顆粒大小會影響萃取嗎?小顆粒有較大的表面積,因此萃取會相對容易-而大顆粒則是相反。

對大部分喜歡咖啡的人來說,EK用來注粉的把手跟方式不太一般,雖然操作過程不是很簡單,但許多人認為值得為此付出額外的努力。


A very uneven grind might produce an average extraction yield (roughly speaking, the proportion of the dose of espresso that ends up in the cup) of 20%, which falls well within traditional parameters for a correctly extracted espresso—but this might be comprised of large particles (boulders) extracting at, say, 10%; medium-sized particles extracting at, perhaps 18%; and fines extracting at, say, 25%. Doesn’t sound quite so correctly extracted now, does it?
不均勻的研磨可能會產生平均20%的萃取率(大致來說,一份espresso的粉量比例決定了一杯咖啡好壞)咖啡粉量的比例在咖啡杯才結束),這會讓咖啡傳統萃取的參數良好,但這可能會包含10%大顆粒的萃取,中顆粒的萃取約18%、細顆粒萃取25%,這樣的萃取感覺起來不是很正確吧?
The EK produces particles with greater uniformity of size, so its extractions are comprised of a higher proportion of similarly sized and, as of such, similarly extracted particles—which has a large impact on flavour.
EK產出的顆粒大小更均勻,因此萃取包含了高比例的相近大小的顆粒,因此,相近的萃取顆粒對風味的影響甚鉅。

Higher Extractions Equal More Flavour
更高的萃取有更多風味
The upshot of this is that EK shots can be pushed towards higher extraction yields without the negative side effects that this usually entails with traditional grinders. 
EK的沖煮結果可推向更高的而沒有負面影響的萃取,而這通常需要一般傳統磨豆機才能做到。


EK需要將磨床卸除,連接設計成袋夾,透過啟動彈簧加壓。


Many grinders, particularly those with conical burrs, struggle to produce shots with extraction yields above 20% without the shot becoming excessively diluted or just, well, not tasty. Yet this is primarily a consequence of grind unevenness and those varying extraction yields. The EK, in comparison, is able to produce tasty espressos at higher yields because the espresso produced using it isn’t comprised of such a large range of different extractions.
許多磨豆機,特別是這些圓錐形磨豆機要沖煮出超過20%的萃取,而會變得過分稀釋或是不好喝。這是研磨不均勻和不同萃取率的主要後果,而EK在比較後,可以用較高的應產率煮出好咖啡,因為沖煮一杯好咖啡不容許有這樣差異大的萃取率。

Downsides of the EK43
EK43的缺點
Given these advantages, you may wonder why the EK43 is not a more common sight as an espresso grinder in speciality coffee shops. The answer is primarily related to its usability; there is no on-demand dosing capability or even a mechanical doser.
有這些優點,你可能想為什麼EK43沒有在精品咖啡店普及,主要是因為它的實用性,它沒有辦法持續穩定供應精準粉量的能力。
Coffee shops that use the EK for espresso usually resort to pre-measuring individual doses of beans which are then stored in containers. This is, of course, time-consuming and pretty inefficient from a space-utilisation viewpoint (hundreds of doses of beans in small cups take up a surprising amount of counter space).
用來沖煮espresso的咖啡店通常會先量好單杯咖啡所需的豆重,並保存在容器中,而從空間利用率來看這當然很耗費時間、沒效率(數百個放在小杯中量好的咖啡豆會佔據很驚人的儲存空間)。

圖為重新調整EK,在此情況下咖啡磨豆機秤的重量很小。而大多數咖啡師會量得比所需重量再多一些,因為在彈出儲粉槽時會失去一些咖啡粉。


However, there are some small perks when it comes to the usability of this item. The inconvenience of storing individual doses is partly offset by the fact that the orientation of the burrs means that there is very little retention, which significantly reduces wastage—a major advantage when dialing in. Single dosing also enables multiple espressos to be offered without the need to purchase additional grinders (although workflow is slightly slowed by the need to change grind settings when switching between beans).
然而,當提及EK的實用性時是有一些值得期待的地方,雖然需要事先量好單杯豆重,並保存在適當的容器內(例如密封不透光的罐子)而不太方便,但事實上調整磨床的誤差很少,明顯減少了咖啡粉的損失,而這也是EK最主要的優點。在提供單品咖啡時,也不需要再額外購買磨豆機就能沖煮多份濃縮咖啡(雖然在轉換單品豆時所作切換研磨設定時會有一些耗時)。

轉動或是旋轉填壓可平均應用在圓盤上,這個設計可減緩流速、理論上也能提高萃取。但經過一天後你的手腕可能會有些痠痛。



A Modern Solution
最新的解決方式
If this all sounds too much like hard work, there is a solution waiting in the wings: the Mahlkonig Peak, which combines EK43 style burrs and particle size distribution with the on demand grinding features of its existing K30 grinder. The only downsides are the anticipated price (similar to the going rate for an EK) and the fact that you’ll need to buy more than one if you want to offer multiple espressos simultaneously.
如果這些聽起來會操作困難,有一個解決方式:Mahlkonig Peak磨豆機,結合了EK43風格的磨床、顆粒大小分配、以及K30磨豆機可以立即研磨的特性。缺點是期望售價高(與英國現行利率相近),而如果要同時沖煮多品項咖啡時,你需要多於一台磨豆機。

Until the Peak’s public release, though, the EK43 remains the benchmark grinder for high extraction espressos.
直到Peak這台磨豆機公開販售前,EK43仍然是高水準萃取的磨豆機。


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